V1 餐馆要加入连锁餐饮，因为1)low cost of supplies and advertising expenses. 攻击：因果：他因：地址，整体经济增长 2)连锁的服装店的成功：类比错误：服装连锁和餐饮连锁毛关系都没有! 3)everything is equal 即便有关系，也无法保证M餐厅加入连锁后，未来会成功
V2 local restaurant joins restaurant chain的那个，会减少operating costs,吸引客人，分担ads费，有类比clothing stores说大家更喜欢nationally
V1讲的是一个连锁店的Director 认为一个a local store 应家加入他们的全国连锁店，因为这样会带来很多好吃：吸引顾客，还有减少运营成本等等~然后还说了因为现在的大部分顾客都喜欢买国家品牌的衣服，所以他们也会更喜欢去连锁店吃东西~~
V3连锁franchise restaurant可以给餐饮店带来很多好处。加入megaburger连锁的话，可以以更低的价格批量采购，可以有high operating efficiency ,还可以share advertising costs. 除此之外呢，变成franchise restaurant后还可以吸引顾客，就像人们喜欢nationally known clothing stores一样，人们知道what to expect(之类的)，所以人们也会喜欢连锁餐饮店。因此作者说Cindy's Sandwich Shop应该加入Megaburger family, 给顾客提供他们想要的服务。
V4一个 National Fast Food chain的director说服一个叫Cindy's Local Sandwich Shop加入他们的franchise, Cindy currently has 2 local restaurants in Tomville. Director说加入我们连锁好处有 1. 批量进货 shared advertising expense - 省钱 2. Standard menu, so customers already know what to order and know what kind of food quality they can expectn 3. Clothing store franchise has been successful. Join us now. 双赢。
1. 错误因果：批量进货以及shared advertising expense并不能说明sandwich shop一定能节省成本。
2. 错误类比：sandwich shop和clothing store错误类比，clothing store franchise has been successful 不表示sandwich shop加入了national fast food chain也会成功。
3. 无端假设： 当local restaurant加入了national fast food chain不代表一定能吸引顾客，可能反而会失去老顾客。
The following is taken from an editorial in a local newspaper.
“Over the past decade, the price per pound of citrus fruit has increased substantially. Eleven years ago, Megamart charged 5 cents apiece for lemons, but today it commonly charges over 30 cents apiece. In only one of these last eleven years was the weather unfavorable for growing citrus crops. Evidently, then, citrus growers have been responsible for the excessive increase in the price of citrus fruit, and strict pricing regulations are needed to prevent them from continuing to inflate prices.”
Discuss how well reasoned . . . etc.
1. Causal oversimplification：是否出了 citrus growers以外 没有其他因数导致了价格的上涨?。还有，比如环境保护，加工价格上升，人力成本上升，或者单纯的物价上涨。。。Monetary inflation, increased distribution and labor costs, or alterations in supply and demand conditions the growers’ desire for increased profits.
2. 充分条件: Only way to combat increased price is through government intervention.
3. 无关假设：天气好 果树的产量一定高。因为种植柑橘的农民已经动用了可用的资源了，产量无法再多
4. 错误类别 or Hasty generalization：柠檬是不是可以橘类水果类比，或者说，柠檬有其特殊性，譬如柠檬都是进口的，比较贵。
In this editorial the author argues for the imposition of strict pricing regulations in order to prevent citrus growers from continued inflation of prices of citrus fruit. The need for such regulation is supported by the author’s contention that citrus growers have been unnecessarily raising prices of citrus fruit in the past. The evidence for this allegation is the fact that the price of lemons at Megamart has increased from 15 cents per pound to over a dollar a pound during the preceding 11-year period. The author maintains that this increase is unjustifiable because weather conditions have been favorable to citrus production in all but one of those years. This argument is flawed for several reasons.
First and foremost, the author assumes that the only factor that influences the price of citrus fruit is the weather. Other factors such as monetary inflation, increased distribution and labor costs, or alterations in supply and demand conditions are completely ignored as possible sources for the increase. The charge that citrus growers have unnecessarily raised prices can be sustained only if these and other possible factors can be completely ruled out as contributing to the price increases. Since the author fails to address these factors, the recommendation calling for strict pricing regulations can be dismissed out of hand as frivolous.
Second, the author assumes that the only way to combat increased prices is through government intervention. In a free enterprise system many other means of affecting the pricing of goods are available. For example, boycotting a product and thereby influencing supply and demand conditions of the commodity is an effective means of influencing the price of the product. In a free market economy the call for price regulation by the government should occur only when all other means to rectify the problem have been exhausted.
In conclusion, the author’s argument is unconvincing. To strengthen the argument it would be necessary to show that the only factor influencing the price increases is the growers’ desire for increased profits.