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2014年12月GMAT阅读机经:Whipbird唱歌

2014-12-17 17:54:00 新东方在线

1. Whipbird唱歌【疑似原文】

  V1
  讲一种什么鸟,雌鸟会回应雄鸟的叫声,提出来两个假设来解释这种现象,结论是雌鸟这样回应是为了防小三。
  V2
  我感觉这个貌似和鸡精有点出入,本月寂静V1是说feed ,但我这篇通篇都在讲whipbird唱歌,和V2是一个题。研究者研究他们为什么要唱歌,三段,第一段有点失忆,第二段主要研究比较male和female的鸟什么时候唱歌,第二段第一句话超级长又绕,我看了半天才看出来是比较。。。。比较单身的female鸟、有老公的female鸟、单身的male鸟,有老婆的male的鸟,还有一对一对的鸟哪个叫的更频繁。大家注意仔细看看这段话,有题!还有一个infer的题,问从文中可以infer什么?我选的是A female鸟比male鸟唱歌唱的多。最后得出结论female是为了防小三!(是的就是这么奇葩!)
  V3
  有篇新的是说一种鸟whipbird,中文是鞭鸫(也是醉了...)科学家研究雌鸟,雄鸟唱歌以及couple合唱等等传递的信息。最后一篇时间好紧,基本是半分一题过的...
  V4
  简短三段式:介绍试验背景+第一种解释+第二种解释
  科学家针对某种鸟夫妻雌鸟用叫声回应公鸟的情况,进行试验。当独身雌鸟、独身雄鸟、另一对鸟夫妻进入原鸟夫妻领地时,雌鸟在独身雌鸟“入侵”时回应老公最卖力= =据此科学家针对雌鸟回应公鸟的动机提出两种解释,第一种是为了防小三,第二种貌似是表现commitment...但明显第
  二种解释没有前者给力,文中举出了一些削弱的点。
  【疑似原文】
  这是一篇oxfordjournal,原文太长,只截取了相对有用的部分,原文链接在这里 感谢mcgradyjj23 和iddora贡献
  http://beheco.oxfordjournals.org/content/18/1/182.full
  Paired male and female eastern whipbirds, sing precisely coordinated, male-led duets. Four broad explanations have been proposed for the function of duets: 1) cooperative resource defense, 2) prevention of partner usurpation, 3) defense of an individual’s own position within the partnership, or 4) mate identification and localization. These 4 hypotheses make different predictions about how male and female residents should respond to simulated intrusion by other pairs or individuals. We compared the behavioral and vocal responses of 20 pairs of eastern whipbirds to simulated territorial intrusions by: 1) a solitary singing male, 2) a solitary singing female, and 3) a duetting pair. Males and females did not coordinate their approach to the playback speaker and showed sex-specific responses to playback. Males did not respond differently to duetting versus solo singing intruders. By contrast, females approached more closely during solo female song than during solo male song or duet playback.
  Females also produced specific vocalizations only in response to duet and solo female playback. Both sexes approached the speaker more closely and quickly during playback of same-sex solo songs than opposite-sex solo songs. Finally, females answered more of their mate’s songs during simulated intrusion by a lone female than during simulated intrusion by a lone male. Our results suggest that duets in this species primarily function to allow females to defend their exclusive position in a partnership.
  Mate defense by females is unusual in birds but may be promoted in eastern whipbirds by a female-biased sex ratio and the need for exclusive access to male care. Thus, duets result from independent and conflicting strategies of mate and territory defense in males and females.
  Our results do not support hypotheses that female eastern whipbirds reply to their partner to identify themselves to jointly defend a shared resource or to prevent their partner being usurped. Rather, duets in this species appear to play a primary role in allowing females to defend their exclusive position in a partnership. Female whipbirds may reply precisely to their partner to signal commitment to their partner or, more likely, as a method of acoustic mate defense. Defence of their position in the partnership may be necessary because a female-biased sex ratio is likely to create conditions of intense intrasexual competition between females for mate, and exclusive access to male care plays an important role in female reproductive success. This study suggests that duets are a consequence of the sexes following independent strategies of mate and territory defense and highlights the existence of possible conflicts between partners. Further studies are required to determine whether duets function in a similar way in other species that form duets initiated exclusively by males.

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